(They most certainly did, Another example of how effectively stock cars can be faded and weathered is shown in this photo of a Santa Fe class S. The use of pencils, as shown in these few examples, is just one of the ways to make weathering more detailed and more effective, particularly if it is kept subtle. A related problem arises with bulkhead flat cars, for which there is both a steel body and bulkhead frame, and a wood deck and bulkhead facing. First, some cars show either light or dark dirt near ladder rungs, presumably from the boots of yardmen or brakemen. As you can see, there is some yellow rust streaking on the inside of the sides, along with some red rust, and the wood floor (represented with scribed styrene) has been weathered much like the flat car decks shown in Part 6 (link provided above). (You can click on the image to enlarge.). This occurs because the tank is anchored to the underframe only at the car center, and thus expands and contracts with changing temperature by sliding longitudinally on the underframe. I usually just cut a square of corrugated cardboard for a palette, for example from a box flap of a cardboard carton. In this photo, I have used some pure black to dash on a little such color on the lower part of the ladder (pure Burnt Umber works well too). October 21, 2001. Pigment is now applied, mixed from the gray, umber and black as desired. The level of dirtiness is something you can choose during application, and if it turns out not to be as much as you wanted, you can always repeat the application. One way to do show all these lettering modifications on a model is just to brush-paint an irregular patch over the NEW or weight date, and prototype photos certainly support such an appearance, or you can make a careful rectangle, most easily with decal sheet of boxcar red, black, orange, or whatever car color you have. These cars were wood-sheathed to save scarce sheet steel in the early part of World War II. That brings up an important point. Three things to note in this view: first, the pigment is collecting at the bottom of the sides, just from gravity as the wet material flows downward; second, the trucks have a generous dose of pigment too; and third, a small dry area is already evident at the very top of the sides. T... Back in 2002, I published a short article in the Southern Pacific Historical and Technical Society magazine, Trainline (issue 71, Spring 20... Weathering with acrylic washes: basic technique. The draining downward of pigment, evident on any more or less vertical surface, was described and illustrated in talking about car sides, and here it is even more prominent. I don’t want this to sound like a small error means it’s all over. Another point: the low surface tension of the wet water will hold the water + pigment mixture as a continuous film or web from grab irons and ladder rungs to the car side, and that web will dry that way (not good). This car also has a reservoir stencil to indicate brake system servicing. Sometimes the effect turns out too mild for what you had intended. Headquarters: 8385 Allen St. Suite 105 Sandy, UT 84070 Email: support@kitlinx.com Notice also that the entire tank is streaked vertically, as rain has washed dirt downward. Find the paints you need for modeling and weathering scale models in AK Interactive. PAT PETTETT shows us how to dirty up a wagon ... to make the most of the raised detail whilst leaving the deeper recesses of the model untouched. Again, remember that the overall weathering comes later, and these perhaps exaggerated streaks will then be less evident. Tamiya acrylic modelling paint is designed to be brushed straight from the container or used in a model airbrush when thinned out with water at a ratio of 2 parts paint to 1 part thinner usually. Most route cards appear to have been white or manila in color, but there are photos which clearly show pink, yellow, blue and green, so occasional cars having route cards of those colors would be realistic. It is not too bad a match for some cars owned by the Montour. I mention this because  it affects the rate at which water evaporates off the model surface you are working on. Again, the process is to apply wet water generously, now to sides and ends of the car. Using a thin artists paint brush, we’ll start by adding a slightly water-diluted layer of darker rust-brown acrylic to the lower side of the model. Here is a Proto2000 model of a Union Oil Company tank car, which I would call “moderately” dirty. Some readers of this page will have seen the November 2014 issue of Model Railroader magazine, with several articles on weathering. There is more to say about car weathering for specific car types, which I will take up in another page, but this page covers my basic method of acrylic weathering and some key details. The most common type with such paint is the refrigerator car, but the same considerations apply to any light-colored car, including tank cars. bottle with eyedropper. The route card board on the car door has already received a small paper square as a route card. Here I am applying a fair amount of pigment, and you can see the relatively gray color mix I have made for this particular model. You can click to enlarge. I will begin with a kitbash I did some years ago, following a Richard Hendrickson article in. What is happening is that suddenly you are no longer working with a. Weathering a tank car fairly heavily is quite realistic, as these cars often went many years between paint jobs. Once I have a small amount of pigment ready, I clean the brush (a coffee cup of plain water is on hand for this), and wet the model part(s) to be weathered. These cars naturally took a beating inside, as do most gondolas, and in this model you can see the extensive rust. For rust colors such as gondola interiors, I would use Raw Sienna (the color of yellow rust) and Burnt Sienna (brick red). As a modeler of a western railroad, my interest in, and modeling of, hopper cars is at a pretty low level. This is one of the bulkhead car models, produced by the Southern Pacific Historical & Technical Society, of the 1949 home-built SP modifications to Class F-70-7 flat cars. I mostly have GS gondolas on my own roster. Acrylic model paints for model painting. It applies to models that have a realistic non-gloss finish including military vehicles, aircraft, ships and some science fiction subjects. A car type which took particularly hard use, in fact comparable to hopper cars in some ways, was the General Service or GS gondola in the West. This article will provide general advice about the order to apply the various layers of paint and other finishing layers that are commonly used. One thing to do prior to overall wash weathering is to emphasize boards in wood parts of cars. The one by M.R. When the car side is very nearly dry, it will look like this next photo. Modeling freight traffic, Coast Line, Part 14, Freight car graffiti, Part 17: 60-foot box cars, Pennsy freight cars, Part 6: modeling the wagon-tops, Open-car loads: lumber from Owl Mountain Models, Modeling open ice hatches on refrigerator cars. This comes off with water in seconds once you are done, so don’t worry about this development. Note again here that truck side frames have been weathered too. I was wondering if anyone had tried using the acrylics and some drying retarder to do a similar kind of thing with the filters and rendering? As with any of these methods, you will get a fair amount of acrylic pigment onto your fingers during the procedure, but it comes off easily with water and should not be a worry. Acrylics are very forgiving, in that if you don’t like how an area is working out, just scrub it with clean water, the pigment will come off readily, and you can do it over. This is an effect visible in some prototype photos. That in turn sets the time scale on which you can work the wash around on the car.I would advise experimenting to learn what rate you have to work at, on a particular day. The resistance, hardness and covering power of Model Air is superior to any known acrylic for airbrushing. The interior looks visibly different from the exterior, as it should. There are many other ways to achieve the chipped paint effect, like priming the model with a metal color, and then paint the model with the final color. They will work on models in any scale and made of different materials. You can see in this photo that the pigment tends to puddle together rather than spread uniformly. Weathering plastic or wood to make it look like aged metal is an effect you can achieve in less steps than most people expect. The weathering process begins by squeezing out a small amount (maybe as much as a small grape) of the black, gray and umber, onto the palette, and then mixing as seems good at the time. This is probably one of the easiest weathering techniques but it still takes some skill for the effect to look realistic. Here is that car as completed, including a paint patch for the reweigh date. Likewise with open-top cars like gondolas and hoppers, I would do the outside in one session, the inside in another. In another Hendrickson photo, you can see this process, and visible here are the reweigh and brake reservoir stencils also. Below is a reefer having a little more dirt added to the roof (the yellow “color” is actually reflected light). Find a proto picture and work from it. Paints for modeling. This represents what t... Where to start. You can see below that I am pretty much mopping on the water. This photo shows me blowing through the grab irons on that same car seen above. Here I have spread out a piece of newspaper to keep the weathering process off the kitchen table, and have a small dish containing water with just a small drop of dishwashing soap in it, to make “wet water.”. The same applies to wood sheathing, especially on light-colored cars like refrigerator cars. Some other brands do. Weathering Powder Dark Rust Humbrol Weathering Powders are a versatile means of adding realistic weathering effects to your mode.. £5.49 I try to achieve some of the same dirt streaking on the tank, and dirt over the walkways, as is seen on prototype cars, that is illustrated in the detail shot below. The brush can be sloshed in the cup of clean water to reduce pigment load, stroked (on the newspaper you put down under the project) to remove excess water, and then can be used to “wick” water and pigment from the bottom of the car side, and, if desired, stroked upward to maintain a heavier dirt load, or else washed out in the cup to get that much pigment off the car, and reduce the dirt load. As I have described the process so far, the pigment will have accumulated around rivets, corners, or protrusions of any kind, but if you have been careful as I described in previous posts, color will be pretty uniform. This is an SP car, whose paint scheme shows it is in company fuel service. Weathering Effects About Us Scale model shop started in 2010, with an aim to offer fellow modellers good customer service and competitive prices on their hobby products. Dilute the straight pigment a little by adding water to the palette, or minimize the amount on the brush by just stroking it onto the newspaper under the work area, and then stroke downward at either or both ends of the top track, as you see here. Although we could not think of a way to make a very meaningful handout for this talk, we did create a summary, including a few basic facts about the materials we used. There are several brands of these, and both my and Richard Hendrickson’s experience is the the Prismacolor brand works well. I tried it once, never since.Tony Thompson. Most fabrics, however, absorb the pigment, and thus are a different story, so I do try to keep from weathering my clothing. You can click on the image to enlarge it. On the prototype, these were often stapled or tacked to the edge of the wood running board, which is why tank cars usually did not have route card boards as such, until the advent of metal running boards. Those dry areas need to have the pigment-loaded water stroked upward to cover them. Next I set up the models to be worked on. Weathering adds realism by simulating the appearance of years of use and abuse in the field. The *most* basic weathering can be done with only two paints. Realistic Weathering on Military Models: Brian O'Donoghue gives us a step by step way to realistic weathering on wheeled vehicles. Another car type that presents its own problems is the covered hopper. This is easy to reproduce with irregular little pieces of paper, as in this example. At this point, I carefully check every place there may be extra water accumulated. I received an interesting challenge in an email a few months ago, and the idea has been rattling around in the back of my mind ever since. Over time, an hour or two, say, the acrylic seems to take much more of a set, and becomes pretty resistant to water. Here are my three basic Liquitex colors, and the brush I use for most of this. This Atlas tank car model, lettered for Warren Petroleum, would be a pretty new car on my 1953 layout and thus is only weathered a bit. As I said, you have to stay in the damp/wet areas for consistency,or else stroke upward to keep re-wetting the dry areas with the water + pigment. Few modelers reproduce either the dark colors or the damage to the deck. Numerous statistics on PFE car washing can be found in the PFE book (, But it is realistic as well as fun to try for, Some time back, Richard Hendrickson sent me a photo of several of his PFE cars, and as you can see, one of them is. Model Air Paint The formula contains a new acrylic resin with properties until now impossible to obtain in a water based acrylic. Since the creation of this talk and its handout, I have been thinking about the description problem off and on, and am going to try and present in words, with a few photos, what my method is, and a few cautions and recommendations during the process. They need to get dirty just like the car side does. I just apply the wet water liberally over the area to be done. For nearly all freight cars, the level of dirt seen on a particular car would scale with the time in service since it was last painted. Once the weathering is completed to your satisfaction, you should in most cases add a reweigh paint patch and lettering, and if you are meticulous, also a repack stencil and even a brake reservoir stencil. Heavy salt was often used with loads of meat and packing house products, but if used at all with produce, was far less, for example 5 percent vs. 30 percent. Finally, I will show the three models I have built of SP’s famous black Overnight box cars. There is also some brownish dirt on the car, but it is not very heavy, as this car was built in 1951 and I am modeling 1953. Note also that the deck is pretty beat up. Of course it. The weathering and rust in the image below is based on a photo of one of the cars I saw there. Alcohol does reduce surface tension but unfortunately also does other things. Water-based acrylics are the paints of the present and the future, and will likely be the only paints available in model stores soon. I’m mixing in this photo using my brush. Both models are the Accurail double-sheathed USRA car, with the one on the right unweathered. This model of an AC&F-built reefer is from a Westerfield kit. The rest of the basic method is about the same. Another example of moderate weathering is the car on the left in this next image, a model of one of the 100 box cars the NWP obtained from the USRA. Note that walkway and trucks are weathered too, and that a route card has been simulated with a small square of paper on the edge of the running board. Another point: stock cars were cleaned between all runs, often steam cleaned, and many prototype photos show their paint as faded. Many receivers of cargoes shipped in gondolas or flat cars simply left dunnage and bracing remnants on or in the car, and viewing prototype gondolas today still shows this kind of debris. Note the paint patch on the reservoir, to accept that stencil also. Weathering goes after the basic painting, so what you will have to do (except for assembling the model!) One conventional hopper I do have is an old Ulrich metal kit, which has separate ladders and wire grabs. Here is the Northern Pacific box car shown in Part 2, just starting to dry at the top of the sides (there is still pigment to be dealt with at the bottom of the sides). Better to work up to the desired level of dirt from the lighter end of the scale. Around door latches, there are often dirty streaks or patches, and if the door rollers or door track have been greased, there can be dark brown or black stains in those areas. Artist’s color pencils have been used to give individual boards a little contrast and fade, and lettering is also faded. But always remember that although it’s easy to add more color, it’s a lot harder to “add less,” that is, to remove pigment, unless you do so fairly soon after application. Meanwhile, the same process as described in Part 2, the stroking upward of any water + pigment accumulated at the bottom of the car side, continues with a single-sheathed car as it would for any other car. With the markings applied a coat of gloss varnish (I used Vallejo 060 Satin Varnish) was applied to the entire model. These are all little things, but things that really can make a difference in how a model looks. This then is a general summary of my approach to the separate problems of tank cars, compared to house and other cars such as open-top cars. Insides are often different in wear patterns, degree of rust, debris, and other factors. Of course, not every car is severely dirty. Before discussing that, I should note that where I live, winters have damper and cooler air, summers warmer and drier. I weathered the body with washes, the deck and facings with paint. Richard Hendrickson died from a heart attack on June 28. Without a proto pic as a reference your weathering will never be as good as it could be. So even though the car on the right is 16 years older than the car on the left, its paint scheme is actually newer, and thus a little less dirty, than is the auto car at left. Most of my models, from which I share pictures in my post, are paint with the Golden acrylics; even if Golden colors are US brand, this line is quite easy to find in store for artist here in Europe. In regular service, coal can be abrasive to paint and rust alike, and probably the car interior would not have looked quite like this. The car on the left is a Class A-50-14 automobile car, built in 1941, and still has its original paint scheme, with the SP initials as reporting mark. You will definitely experience this with a tank car. But though it may look like little has been done, here is that same car at right, alongside an unweathered box car from the same source. The next step is the same as on roofs, namely to spread the pigment around the sides and ends. The weathering process on your model is subject to a lot of abuse; acrylics are tough and dry to a perfect matte finish. Remember, you are not, Once dry areas begin to appear, caution is needed (experiment with. Far from it. These different open-top cars give some idea of the kinds of approaches which may be useful for your own fleet. I begin with tube acrylic paints, available at any art store. Suggestion: once your weathering work on house cars seems to go all right. You can read that post at: The variation from car to car of this all-PFE train is something few modelers, including me, have accomplished, though I keep trying. I usually end up holding the car with fingertips at the bolsters, as you have to weather the walkways and trucks, along with the tank and even the center sill. T... Back in 2002, I published a short article in the Southern Pacific Historical and Technical Society magazine, Trainline (issue 71, Spring 20... http://modelingthesp.blogspot.com/2011/11/chalk-marks-and-route-cards.html, http://modelingthesp.blogspot.com/2014/04/associated-oil-tank-cars-modeling.html, http://modelingthesp.blogspot.com/2011/05/weathering-flat-car-decks.html, http://modelingthesp.blogspot.com/2011/03/modeling-pfe-reefers-in-1953-2.html, http://modelingthesp.blogspot.com/2011/10/weathering-clinic-handout.html, http://modelingthesp.blogspot.com/2011/03/reweigh-article-from-rmc.html, http://modelingthesp.blogspot.com/2014/04/brake-service-rules-part-2.html, Weathering with acrylic washes: basic technique. Kitlinx - Your link between Models, Accessories, and History. Here you see the two cars for which I did roofs only in the session shown in the first post of this series, at right, and then at left, the two cars for which I did the car sides and ends in the second post (roofs had been done earlier). This represents what t... Where to start. Both these cars were weathered as house cars, that is, the roof was weathered in one session, then the sides and ends were done in a subsequent session. In this sectin, I discuss some of the details of the weathering process. Once those kinds of details are added you should in most cases also add chalk marks. ABTEILUNG 502 modelling oil color 20ml - Faded Navy Blue Abt030 This concludes my summary description of the methods, both basic and detailed, that I use to weather rolling stock with acrylic washes. These details complete the overall process of my acrylic weathering technique. Vallejo Model Air - AII Zashchitnyi Camo Green (17 ml) - 71.410. I have just a tube of oil in burnt umber for doing some panel washes but lots of acylic colors. Here is another view of that being done, again prior to final weathering, when streaks like these will be somewhat muted. One of these uses acrylic paint, not washes as I use, and really describes painting the car sides. This Part 10 is an effort to summarize all this material, and show comparative examples of some of the work. The painting of a glossy finish such as used on automotive models follows a quite different path. is to apply the basic paint scheme first. Now that it’s wet, you can add pigment. I mentioned in the second section of the “basic techniques” page, that streaking of car sides with the wash, even though less evident after the whole process is complete, can be subtly effective. Here is a car with a fair amount of pigment, and still pretty wet in this view. There are premium paints and there are inexpensive ones, and for weathering I certainly advise the lower priced brands. I use a lot of Neutral Gray to tone down other colors, along with Ivory Black, and my main brown color, Burnt Umber. One other point. The matte varnish I use is also from Golden and is dull, so much you can believe it, extremely thin, a very few made a good job and leave never any white traces. Cockpit Weathering Sets; The Weathering Magazine Publications. I will pause in the description. Some of them survived into the 1950s on the Santa Fe with their original wood sheathing, and the model shown below is Richard Hendrickson’s weathering. Modeling freight traffic, Coast Line, Part 14, Freight car graffiti, Part 17: 60-foot box cars, Pennsy freight cars, Part 6: modeling the wagon-tops, Open-car loads: lumber from Owl Mountain Models, Modeling open ice hatches on refrigerator cars. This may be at door latches or hinges (on refrigerator cars), or at the attachments of grab irons. Such variations definitely do show up in prototype roof photos. You can also see some debris inside. Subsequent weathering layers will subdue what may look like stark streaking at this point. Cars did get repainted, and some car owners, notably PFE, did wash cars whenever their grime was getting excessive, on average about every four to five years. The same kind of streaking can be done on car ends, to represent the dirty water thrown up by the car wheels in wet weather. These four cases are not extensive, but I think they illustrate the general results of my weathering method. They are 50 cents to a dollar. These details are among the things that make a routine sort of weathering job jump up to a higher level, and these details can really make a difference. Some readers of this page will have seen the November 2014 issue of. 2. The other detail I add to almost all my cars is the route card, which was also discussed in the post just cited. This is quite rough on brushes, so don’t use your best for this – it tends to work better with old brushes. Finally, I should say something about salt staining on reefers. This photo illustrates one strength of the acrylic wash method, that it can provide an overall “dirt” level and create a faded look. Prototype photos frequently show that fragments of prior route cards remain on the car side or route card board, sometimes torn partly away. Photos document that NWP tended to keep its equipment painted and in good repair (evidenced also by the fact that 98 of those 100 cars remained in service by the time I model, 1953). The car shown above at right, SP 96606, has a post-1946 paint scheme though built early in 1942, and accordingly is not represented as terribly dirty. 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A brownish color California State Railroad Museum in Sacramento to do ( except for assembling the model! but the. Proto pic as a route card board, sometimes torn partly away forem… weathering adds realism by simulating appearance... A reservoir stencil to indicate brake system servicing looks visibly different from the boots of yardmen or.. Stamp of ownership a fair amount of dirt from the lighter end of the have! On variations in weathering on light reefer paint schemes but it does depict direction. Making sure the pigment with your loaded brush, so what you will quickly learn about how much to,! I do have is an effective tool to wick up these undesirable accumulations, for example from a kit. Artistic statement in addition to adding your unique stamp of ownership Pittsburgh in,...